Common law guidelines are closely inspired by “common appeals”, but are not co-extensive with them. It has also been argued that a contractual agreement under which one party may retain the goods of another party until payment is not a right of pledge because the rights of pledge cannot be consensual under the common law. However, it would appear that these rights are treated under the insolvency law as rights of pledge, even if they are not expressed as pledges.  This is a question of presumption of the extent of equitable pledge rights beyond the seller`s unpaid instructions. In a number of appeal cases, equity rights have been established, but they do not yet concern the goods.  Australian jurisdictions have been the most sensitive to deposit rights to equity in personal property (cf. Hewett v Court (1983) 57 ALJR 211, but a review of the cases still leaves a lack of clarity as to the principles that are the subject of a fair right of pledge. Despite their differences in terminology and application, there are a number of similarities between the guidelines in the United States and elsewhere in the common law world. The further development of a right of pledge is an important part of the task of protecting the secured creditor`s interest in the immovable property. A sophisticated right of pledge applies to bona foit buyers of real estate and even to a liquidator; An imperming right of pledge must not be. Some laws provide for a passive right to retain ownership vis-à-vis its owner as security of obligations. For example, section 88 of the UK Civil Aviation Act 1982 allows an airport to hold aircraft for unpaid airport charges and aviation fuel. Equitable links are a very specific type of guideline.
These are court-imposed instructions to maintain a certain degree of fairness or “justice” in the situation surrounding the property. They normally occur when one person owns property for another person. These situations can often be very complex and involve multiple parties and laws of the state. Non-consensual pledge rights generally result from the law or the application of the common law. These laws give a creditor the right to impose a right of pledge on immovable property or immovable property because of the existence of the creditor-debtor ratio. . . .